Unfinished Research paper : Dec, 18th, 2019

Sumire Yamaguchi

E180C016

Research paper

Confirmation of Extensive Reading and Thinking about How to Raise Students’ Motivation for Extensive Reading

1Introduction

The purpose of this research is to confirm the effects of extensive reading and think about how to raise students’ motivation of extensive reading. Recently, most universities in Japan accept extensive reading program because it is said that there are some benefits from extensive reading to improve reading skills. The reason is that the speed of students’ information processing can get faster by understanding English sentences directly from Extensive reading. (Nishizawa, 2009)

Now, I’m studying English education in Gunma university. There are some extensive reading programs and some students are trying to read more than 150,000 words in the first semester. However, there are some people who don’t like extensive reading and don’t understand the effective points of extensive reading. We can say the same things in high schools and junior high schools in Japan. I like to read extensively, but not sure that there are some benefits from extensive reading. If I confirm the effects of extensive reading, I will get some hints to raise students’ motivation toward extensive reading. So, I decided to make research papers about this topic.

2 Current situations of extensive reading programs in Japan

There are many schools which introduce extensive reading program. In my case, I have the programs when I was a high school student. I couldn’t have the program in my junior high school, but there are some junior high schools in Japan which take the programs into the English classes. Also, many universities in Japan introduce extensive reading programs. As I mentioned above, Gunma university has extensive reading programs. There are differences of thinking about extensive reading among people who receive extensive reading program. Some students, who think extensive reading is an effective way to improve reading skills, are willingly to read books. On the other hand, some people, who think it is not an effective way, might give up to read easily. English teachers should teach them the benefits of extensive reading and raise their motivation toward the extensive reading.

3 Research Questions

 I have two Research questions. First, What are good points of extensive reading? It’s said that extensive reading can improve reading skills. I wander there are other good points of extensive reading. Second, How can I raise students’ motivation of extensive reading? There are students who think extensive reading is boring or not good way to improve reading skills. So, I want to think about how to raise their motivation.

4 Confirmation of Extensive Reading’s good points and Thinking about How to Raise Students’ Motivation for Extensive Reading

4-1 Continuous reading can improve students’ reading skills and their reading speed.

In Gunma University, most of the freshmen are given the assignments of extensive reading every week. However, they tend to stop reading when they advance to the next grade. I also stopped reading books after becoming a sophomore. There are no assignments of extensive reading, so we can’t raise our motivation toward extensive reading. Students can’t improve reading skills when they don’t try to continue reading after finishing the assignments. For improving students’ reading skills, I think that English teachers have to give assignments of extensive reading continuously. Also, we can say teachers should take extensive reading programs into the classes. (Nishizawa, 2009)

 At the same time, they have to think about the amounts of the assignments. If students have many assignments of extensive reading, they might give up to read. So, the teachers have to give the students the moderate amounts of the assignments.

4-2 Extensive reading can improve students’ self-efficacy.

 What is self-efficacy? It means that we know our own possibilities of accomplishing things. If a student has a strong self-efficacy, he or she really can do something. One of the papers I researched “reports the results of research on the effectiveness of attribution retraining through the in-class extensive reading (ER) program in improving students’ self-efficacy with English learning.” (Nakayama, 2018, p.27) Self-efficacy is derived from four major sources. They are “Performance accomplishment”, “Vicarious experiences”, “Verbal persuasion”, and “Physiological state”. (Nakayama, 2018, p. 30) With these things in extensive reading program, students can improve students’ self-efficacy. For example, in “performance accomplishment”, participants in Nakayama’s study could choose any books they liked. When teachers don’t limit choices of books students choose, the students read books more aggressively.

4-3 Extensive reading can develop students’ linguistic knowledge and reading abilities.

Aka Natsuki’s article shows that the effects of extensive reading on the development of Japanese high school learners’ linguistic knowledge and reading abilities. (Aka, 2019) In the paper, she divided two groups to investigate their grammar knowledge. She found that the group, who received a year of extensive reading, could get higher score than the one, who received grammar instruction instead. So, students can get grammar skills not only by grammar instruction but also by extensive reading. Also, we can say extensive reading is more effective way to get grammar knowledges than grammar instruction.

4-4 Extensive reading can be a way to get high scores on TOEIC

 As I mentioned in 4-1, continuous reading can improve students’ English skills. Also, students who take extensive reading classes can get higher scores on TOEIC. (Nishizawa, 2009)  Students in the classes have to read English books and continue to read. The students can read many books which are easy to understand, so they feel easy to continue to read the books. Nishizawa’s survey had continued extensive reading programs for 5 years. The subjects read easy books not only in the classes but also outsides of the classes.

5 Conclusion

Extensive reading have to be introduced into the school curriculum because there are the effects

of extensive reading for improving students’ reading skills. It is important for English teachers

to raise students’ motivation, so they have to do extensive program continuously.

6 Reference

Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

EXTENSIVE READING: THEORY, RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION

Response to the critiques of the Aka (2019) article, “Reading performance of Japanese high school learners following a one-year extensive reading program”

The Effectiveness of an Extensive Reading Program with Attribution Retraining in Improving Students’ Self-efficacy with English Learning

What Motivational Strategies Can Teachers Use to Encourage Reading in an L2 for Pleasure?

Outline of my study: Dec, 10th, 2019

1Introduction

1-1 Purpose of this study

1-2 Significance of this study

2 Current situation of extensive reading program in Japan

2-1 Current situation of extensive reading program in school

2-2 The problems of extensive reading

3 Research Questions

3-1 What are good points of extensive reading?

3-2 How can I raise students’ motivation of extensive reading?

4 Confirmation of Extensive Reading’s good points

4-1 Continuous reading can improve students’ reading skills and their reading speed.

4-2 Extensive reading can improve students’ self-efficacy.

4-3 Extensive reading can develop of students’ linguistic knowledge and reading abilities.

4-4 Extensive reading can improve grammar knowledge.

5 Thinking about How to Raise Students’ Motivation for Extensive Reading

5-1 English teachers should know what factors can demotivate students’ motivation to reading.

5-2 English teachers should know ‘four sources’ which can improve students’ self-efficacy toward English leaning.

5-3 English teachers should understand 10 principles of extensive reading and handle with them by the level of the classes.

6 Conclusion

6-1 Conclusion of extensive reading

6-2 Future research

7 Reference

・Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

・EXTENSIVE READING: THEORY, RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION

・Response to the critiques of the Aka (2019) article, “Reading performance of Japanese high school learners following a one-year extensive reading program”

・The Effectiveness of an Extensive Reading Program with Attribution Retraining in Improving Students’ Self-efficacy with English Learning

・What Motivational Strategies Can Teachers Use to Encourage Reading in an L2 for Pleasure?

Synthesis paper: 3rd, Dec, 2019

My theme is how I can raise students reading motivation. Through annotated bibliography, I found 4 things to take into my paper.

 First, Continuous reading can improve students’ reading skills. There are two benefits from continuous reading. First, it can improve students’ reading skills. The subjects in the first article divided into two groups. One group had to read books in the experiments and as assignments. Al of the subjects can choose books freely and could enjoy reading. The experiment continued one year and promoted the subjects to read out of the experiments. At the end of the experiments, the subjects both in the two groups could increase their reading speed. The fourth article’s experiment continued eight months. The subjects could improve reading skills. So, continuous reading is an important thing to improve students’ reading skills.

 Second, extensive reading can improve grammar skills. Third article says that the group, who received a year of extensive reading program, could get higher scores than the one, who received grammar instruction instead. But, the subjects are beginner-class and grammar instruction is efficient for older students. So English teachers, who teach in lower-class, can introduce extensive reading program. Also, the fifth article says extensive reading can improve the subjects’ grammar skills.

Third, Fifth article says that extensive reading improves reading fluency, vocabulary acquisition, writing ability, and grammar knowledge. To improve these reading skills, extensive reading has to be made up of 10 principals. For example, The reading material is easy. If students read difficult books, they will decrease their motivation of reading books.

Fourth, there are some differences among the articles. In the second article, extensive reading program allow the subjects to read with friends and talk about what they found in the book and what they felt in the book. On the other hand, 10 principles of extensive reading in the fifth article says reading is silent and individual. I wondered which article is correct. But, the article says that 10 principals is too idealistic to introduce into the class, so the former might be correct.

Annotated Bibliography : Nov, 26th, 2019

1 Reference

Sugiura, E. (2019). What Motivational Strategies Can Teachers Use to Encourage Reading in an L2 for Pleasure? Departmental Bulletin Paper, 57, 81-92.

URL: file:///C:/Users/aaa/Downloads/08_Sugiura.pdf

2 Summary

 This article showed the differences between Intensive Reading and Extensive Reading and concludes that extensive reading program should introduce into the class. Students can choose any books which they like and input many words into their brain. However, students have to read continuously in order to pass TOEIC and other tests. Students might give up reading if they can’t improve their reading skills, and will not be able to motivate for taking tests. English teachers should think how to sustain students’ motivation.

3 Assessment

 This article is useful for me. It says that teachers should be good reader’s models for students. The students who see the model will imitate it and understand how to read the books. Lower students might understand how to read and what book should read. So, teachers have to be the models for improving students’ motivation.

 Also, English teachers should know what factors can demotivate students’ motivation to reading. If there are factors which can demotivate their motivation in extensive reading program, the students will hate extensive reading.

4 Reflection

 I want to introduce the statements of this article into my research. Extensive reading program should be a support for students’ reading skills and enjoyable for all students. English teachers should consider the enjoyments of extensive reading and think about how to take the program into the class and how often should take the time of extensive reading in the classes.

Annotated Bibliography : Nov, 18th, 2019

1 Reference

Aka, N. (2019), Response to the critiques of the Aka (2019) article, “Reading performance of Japanese high school learners following a one-year extensive reading program”, Reding in a foreign language, 31(2), 296-301.

URL: https://eric.ed.gov/?q=extensive+reading+grammar&id=EJ1232436

2 Summary

 This article shows that the effects of extensive reading on the development of Japanese high school learners’ linguistic knowledge and reading abilities. This study divided into two group based on the test and found that the group, who received a year of extensive reading, could get higher score than the one, who received grammar instruction instead. And, this study divided into three groups and how audio support effected on those group. In the last, the article says that low proficiency group could improve reading comprehension with audio support. The subjects can better understand the meaning of the words by listening to the audio and did not need to read the passage by myself.

3 Assessment

 There are some results of the studies and they are new findings for my research. Low proficiency group needs audio support, but middle group doesn’t need it. From the result, the students, who doesn’t like English, should read with audio support. And, I can know about the good effect of extensive reading on grammar knowledge. Extensive reading can be a method of studying grammar, and students can improve grammar understanding.

4 Reflection

 I want to introduce the content of this article into my research. This article gave me new findings. I had wanted to know whether extensive reading can improve students’ grammar understanding.

Annotated Bibliography 3 : Nov, 14th, 2019.

1Reference

Nakayama, T. (2018). The Effectiveness of an Extensive Reading Program with Attribution Retraining in Improving Students’ Self-efficacy with English Learning. Departmental Bulletin Paper 4, 27-38.

URL: https://jissen.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=repository_uri&item_id=1911&file_id=22&file_no=1

2 Summary

 This article shows the result of a study on the effectiveness through an effective reading program in improving students’ self-efficacy with English learning. Self-efficacy is derived from four major sources, such as performance accomplishment, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. The study compared two groups that differed in their degree of exposure to English outside the classroom, and reported  the effectiveness of an in-class ER program with treatments of the four major sources  of self-efficacy in Japan. In conclusion, this study says four major sources might be more effective in improving students’ perception of reading English.

3 Assessment

 The goal of this article is to indicate that those four main sources can improve students’ self-efficacy toward English leaning. The main four major sources are useful because I can understand why the subjects in the study could continue reading and have self-efficacy. However, this article is familiar with the one which I had read before. This article also want to indicate that students improve their reading skills in the good situation. For example, they can read what they want to read. So, I want to pick up the four major sources which the articles handled.

4 Reflection

 The four major sources of self-efficacy have some interesting points. For example,  physiological states in the sources. In the study, the subjects can read books at their preferred seats and be allowed to drink and eat freely in the session. They can not only choose what they want to read but also drink and eat while reading books. Gunma university’s library doesn’t allow us to drink or eat. That is a bad effect on students. I think students should be given good situation while reading, such as can drink or eat.

Annotated bibliography 2 : Nov, 12th, 2019

1 Reference

Ng, Qiu Rong Renandya, Willy A Chong, Miao Yee Clare(2019), EXTENSIVE READING: THEORY, RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION, TEFLIN Journal: A publication on the teaching and learning of English, 30 (2), 171-186.

URL: https://eric.ed.gov/?q=extensive+reading&id=EJ1225868

2. Summary

 This article shows 10 principles of extensive reading and how schools approach them by using extensive reading programs. Those principles are too idealistic, so some of the schools have to handle them to improve students’ reading skills. The research shows that extensive reading improve reading fluency, vocabulary acquisition, writing ability, and grammar knowledge. However, most of articles about extensive reading focus on the researches of university students. Future researches should cope with middle and high school. Also, they have to cope with elementary school, too.

3.Assesment

 I think 10 principles of extensive reading are connected my topic. Those principles indicate the features of extensive reading. For example, if leaners read extensively, they can read as much as possible. So, they can read books at their own pace. Also, leaners can choose what they want to read. It is related to my first bibliography. Leaners have enough time to read extensively and can chose which book, or when they read.

4.Reflection

 I could find that there are benefits of grammar knowledge by using extensive reading programs. This article also says that leaning grammar through extensive reading is more effective that the one via the traditional approach of grammar-translation. I have never thought that extensive reading can improve our grammar knowledge. So, I’m willing to pick up this finding in my research paper.

Annotated Bibliography: Nov, 6th, 2019

1 Reference

He, Mu(2014, Apr). Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed? An International Online Journal, 16-25.

URL: https://eric.ed.gov/?q=extensive+reading&id=EJ1031273

2 Summary

This article was conducted in Shanghai, mainland China with Year-1 senior high school students. The researchers have shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. They implemented a one-year extensive reading program in a public senior high school in Shanghai. They found out that continuous readings improve the subjects’ reading skills and promote their reading speed. Actually, the subjects read many books not only in the experiments but also in their daily lives. In addition, the author says the readers’ self-preparation and self-adjustment are the keys to promote reading speed.

3 Assessment

I want to know about good points of extensive reading. This article shows that extensive reading with books, which they want to read, can promote the subjects continue reading after the experiments because the subjects can know the fun of extensive reading. I think this is good points of extensive reading. But, I need not to know that extensive reading can promote reading speed. And, this article’s goal is how the subjects’ reading speed have changed in the experiments. That is other than my research’s purpose.

4 Reflection

 This article shows not only how the subjects’ reading speed changed in the experiments but also free choices of books effect their reading speed’s changing. It is related to the good points of extensive reading because most of extensive readings’ program recommend students to choose books which they want to read. But, I have to remember that the subjects read continuously in the experiments. If students gave up reading, they could not raise their motivation of extensive reading and improve their reading skills.

5 Papers for reseaching my topic: Oct, 30th, 2019

1 EXTENSIVE READING:THEORY, RESEACH AND IMPLEMENTION

Qiu Rong Ng, Willy A. Renandya, Miao Yee Clare Chong

2 Extensive Reading in Indonesian Schools: A Successful Story

Anandari, Christina Lhaksmita; Iswandari, Yuseva Ariyani – TEFLIN Journal: A publication on the teaching and learning of English, 2019

3 The Effects of Extensive Reading on Reading Comprehension, Reading Rate, and Vocabulary Acquisition

Suk, Namhee – Reading Research Quarterly, 2017

4 Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

He, Mu – Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 2014

5 Investigating the Effect of Extensive Reading on EFL Learners’ Reading Attitudes at Hail University in KSA

Salameh, Lina Abedelqader Mohmmad – Journal of Education and Practice, 2017

I used the ERIC website. https://eric.ed.gov/

My topic: The usefulness of extensive reading Oct,16th,2019

I have been wandering about the usefulness of extensive reading since I was a high school student. I had classes of extensive reading in high school, but I couldn’t concentrate on reading books because I gradually came to feel sleepy. Other students didn’t concentrate on reading. When I was a freshman, I had to read extensively. The university has many kinds of extensive reading, so university students can choose books which they like. However, some of the students don’t have motivation to read extensively. Someone thinks that extensive reading can’t develop our reading skills. And also, there are the people who think that extensive reading is boring. Now, we should know the usefulness of extensive reading. I think the research will raise our motivation to read English books.

 In this topic, I’m interested in the survey of extensive reading’s effect on us. As I said, I can’t concentrate on reading extensively. How does extensive reading affect us? How should we read extensively to improve our reading skills? When I understand the usefulness of extensive reading, I will be able to raise motive my reading attitude. And also, I want to know the different effect on us between fiction and non-fiction. Are there any difference which affects our increasing English words and vocabularies? I have to research them.

 However, how should I research this topic? Should I search documents for my paper? And also, should I collect the questionnaires about extensive reading? Who does apply to the questionnaires? There are some problems for researching this topic. I have to consider the ways to approach the topic for writing my paper. Anyway, I try searching documents, collecting the questionnaires, and forming the result of the questionnaires together for making my paper.